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linux磁盘管理系列-软RAID的实现

[日期:2017-12-07] 来源:cnblogs  作者: [字体: ]

  1 什么是RAID

  RAID全称是独立磁盘冗余阵列(Redundant Array of Independent Disks),基本思想是把多个磁盘组合起来,组合一个磁盘阵列组,使得性能大幅提高。

  RAID分为几个不同的等级,各个不同的等级均在数据可靠性及读写性能做了不同的权衡。实际工作中根据自己的业务需求选择不同的RAID方案。

  2 RAID的实现方式

  外接式磁盘阵列:通过扩展卡提供适配能力

  内接式RAID:主板集成RAID控制器安装OS前在BIOS里配置

  软件RAID:通过OS实现

  3 标准的RAID

  3.1 RAID0

  RAID0称为条带化存储,将数据分段存储在各个磁盘中,读写均可以并行处理,因此读写速率为单个磁盘的N倍,没有冗余功能,任何一个磁盘的损坏就会导致的数据不可用。

  3.2 RAID1

  RADI1是镜像存储,没有数据校验,数据被同等的写入到2个或者多个磁盘中,写入速度相对慢, 但是读取速度比较快。

  3.3 RAID 4

  RADI4在RAID1的基础上,N个盘用于数据存储,另外加入了1个磁盘作为校验盘。一共N+1个盘,任何一个盘坏掉也不影响数据的访问

  3.4 RAID 5

  RAID5在RAID4的基础上,由原来的一个盘来存储校验数据,改为每个盘都有数据和校验信息的。

  4 混合RAID

  4.1 RAID01

  先组成RAID0,然后组成RAID1.

  4.2 RAID10

  先组成RAID1,然后组成RAID0

  5 软RAID的实现

  5.1 RAID5的实现

  创建由三块硬盘组成的可用空间为2G的RAID5设备,要求其chunk大小为256k,文件系统为ext4,开机可自动挂载至/mydata目录

  5.1.1 先看看我们的磁盘情况

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[[email protected] Bash]$ lsblk
NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
sda 8:0 0 200G 0 disk
├─sda1 8:1 0 1G 0 part /boot
├─sda2 8:2 0 128G 0 part
├─sda3 8:3 0 48.8G 0 part /
├─sda4 8:4 0 512B 0 part
└─sda5 8:5 0 19.5G 0 part /app
sdb 8:16 0 100G 0 disk
sdc 8:32 0 20G 0 disk
sdd 8:48 0 20G 0 disk
sde 8:64 0 20G 0 disk
sdf 8:80 0 20G 0 disk
sr0 11:0 1 8.1G 0 rom /run/media/root/CentOS 7 x86_64 

  这里我们使用sdb,sdc,sdd,每个盘创建一个主分区1G,构建RADI5.

  5.1.2 根据实际情况分区

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  [[email protected] Bash]$ fdisk /dev/sdb

  Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.23.2).

  Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.

  Be careful before using the write command.

  Device does not contain a recognized partition table

  Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x93d380cf.

  Command (m for help): n

  Partition type:

  p primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)

  e extended

  Select (default p): p

  Partition number (1-4, default 1):

  First sector (2048-209715199, default 2048):

  Using default value 2048

  Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (2048-209715199, default 209715199): +1G

  Partition 1 of type Linux and of size 1 GiB is set

  Command (m for help): t

  Selected partition 1

  Hex code (type L to list all codes): fd

  Changed type of partition 'Linux' to 'Linux raid autodetect'

  Command (m for help): p

  Disk /dev/sdb: 107.4 GB, 107374182400 bytes, 209715200 sectors

  Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes

  Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

  I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

  Disk label type: dos

  Disk identifier: 0x93d380cf

  Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

  /dev/sdb1 2048 2099199 1048576 fd Linux raid autodetect

  Command (m for help): w

  The partition table has been altered!

  Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

  Syncing disks.

  [[email protected] Bash]$ fdisk /dev/sdc

  Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.23.2).

  Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.

  Be careful before using the write command.

  Device does not contain a recognized partition table

  Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0xc56b90d8.

  Command (m for help): n

  Partition type:

  p primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)

  e extended

  Select (default p): p

  Partition number (1-4, default 1):

  First sector (2048-41943039, default 2048):

  Using default value 2048

  Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (2048-41943039, default 41943039): +1G

  Partition 1 of type Linux and of size 1 GiB is set

  Command (m for help): t

  Selected partition 1

  Hex code (type L to list all codes): fd

  Changed type of partition 'Linux' to 'Linux raid autodetect'

  Command (m for help): p

  Disk /dev/sdc: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes, 41943040 sectors

  Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes

  Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

  I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

  Disk label type: dos

  Disk identifier: 0xc56b90d8

  Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

  /dev/sdc1 2048 2099199 1048576 fd Linux raid autodetect

  Command (m for help): w

  The partition table has been altered!

  Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

  Syncing disks.

  [[email protected] Bash]$ fdisk /dev/sdd

  Welcome to fdisk (util-linux 2.23.2).

  Changes will remain in memory only, until you decide to write them.

  Be careful before using the write command.

  Device does not contain a recognized partition table

  Building a new DOS disklabel with disk identifier 0x7e0900d8.

  Command (m for help): n

  Partition type:

  p primary (0 primary, 0 extended, 4 free)

  e extended

  Select (default p): p

  Partition number (1-4, default 1):

  First sector (2048-41943039, default 2048):

  Using default value 2048

  Last sector, +sectors or +size{K,M,G} (2048-41943039, default 41943039): +1G

  Partition 1 of type Linux and of size 1 GiB is set

  Command (m for help): p

  Disk /dev/sdd: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes, 41943040 sectors

  Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes

  Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

  I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

  Disk label type: dos

  Disk identifier: 0x7e0900d8

  Device Boot Start End Blocks Id System

  /dev/sdd1 2048 2099199 1048576 83 Linux

  Command (m for help): t

  Selected partition 1

  Hex code (type L to list all codes): fd

  Changed type of partition 'Linux' to 'Linux raid autodetect'

  Command (m for help): w

  The partition table has been altered!

  Calling ioctl() to re-read partition table.

  Syncing disks.

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  5.1.3 创建raid

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  [[email protected] Bash]$ mdadm -C /dev/md5 -a yes -l 5 -n 3 /dev/sd{b1,c1,d1} -c 256 # -C指定创建, -a yes 自动创建设备 , -l 设定level , -n 设定磁盘个数, -c chunk大小

  Continue creating array? y

  mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata

  mdadm: array /dev/md5 started.

  [[email protected] Bash]$ mdadm -Ds # 查看信息

  ARRAY /dev/md5 metadata=1.2 name=centos7.magedu.com:5 UUID=2c8ae60d:a799fcb7:9008a046:ae6ea430

  [[email protected] Bash]$ mdadm -Ds >/etc/mdadm.conf # 将软raid信息写入到配置文件中去[[email protected] Bash]$ mkdir /mnt/md5 # 创建挂载点目录

  [[email protected] Bash]$ mkfs.ext4 /dev/md5 # 创建文件系统

  mke2fs 1.42.9 (28-Dec-2013)

  Filesystem label=

  OS type: Linux

  Block size=4096 (log=2)

  Fragment size=4096 (log=2)

  Stride=64 blocks, Stripe width=128 blocks

  131072 inodes, 523776 blocks

  26188 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user

  First data block=0

  Maximum filesystem blocks=536870912

  16 block groups

  32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group

  8192 inodes per group

  Superblock backups stored on blocks:

  32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912

  Allocating group tables: done

  Writing inode tables: done

  Creating journal (8192 blocks): done

  Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

  [[email protected] Bash]$ mount /dev/md5 /mnt/md5 # 挂载设备

  [[email protected] Bash]$ tail -n 1 /etc/mtab

  /dev/md5 /mnt/md5 ext4 rw,seclabel,relatime,stripe=128,data=ordered 0 0 # 查看挂载信息

  [[email protected] Bash]$ tail -n 1 /etc/mtab >>/etc/fstab #添加到fstab文件中,确保开机启动,这里建议使用uuid

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  5.1.4 验证raid

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  [[email protected] md5]$ mdadm -D /dev/md5 #查看详细raid5详细信息,可以发现有3个都是working状态的

  /dev/md5:

  Version : 1.2

  Creation Time : Wed Dec 6 19:28:22 2017

  Raid Level : raid5

  Array Size : 2095104 (2046.00 MiB 2145.39 MB)

  Used Dev Size : 1047552 (1023.00 MiB 1072.69 MB)

  Raid Devices : 3

  Total Devices : 3

  Persistence : Superblock is persistent

  Update Time : Wed Dec 6 19:39:06 2017

  State : clean

  Active Devices : 3

  Working Devices : 3

  Failed Devices : 0

  Spare Devices : 0

  Layout : left-symmetric

  Chunk Size : 256K

  Consistency Policy : resync

  Name : centos7.magedu.com:5 (local to host centos7.magedu.com)

  UUID : 2c8ae60d:a799fcb7:9008a046:ae6ea430

  Events : 18

  Number Major Minor RaidDevice State

  0 8 17 0 active sync /dev/sdb1

  1 8 33 1 active sync /dev/sdc1

  3 8 49 2 active sync /dev/sdd1

  [[email protected] md5]$ man mdadm

  [[email protected] md5]$ mdadm /dev/md5 -f /dev/sdc1 # -f 设定指定设备故障, 将/dev/sdc1 这个盘标记失败, 看是否数据能访问,我这里使用-f标记失败,工作中可以根据硬盘指示灯判断磁盘状态

  mdadm: set /dev/sdc1 faulty in /dev/md5

  [[email protected] md5]$ mdadm -D /dev/md5 #在次查看信息,发现工作的是2个, 一个失败的设备

  /dev/md5:

  Version : 1.2

  Creation Time : Wed Dec 6 19:28:22 2017

  Raid Level : raid5

  Array Size : 2095104 (2046.00 MiB 2145.39 MB)

  Used Dev Size : 1047552 (1023.00 MiB 1072.69 MB)

  Raid Devices : 3

  Total Devices : 3

  Persistence : Superblock is persistent

  Update Time : Wed Dec 6 19:41:08 2017

  State : clean, degraded # 这里注意了。 我们的一个盘坏掉了。 raid5状态为降级使用了。

  Active Devices : 2

  Working Devices : 2

  Failed Devices : 1

  Spare Devices : 0

  Layout : left-symmetric

  Chunk Size : 256K

  Consistency Policy : resync

  Name : centos7.magedu.com:5 (local to host centos7.magedu.com)

  UUID : 2c8ae60d:a799fcb7:9008a046:ae6ea430

  Events : 20

  Number Major Minor RaidDevice State

  0 8 17 0 active sync /dev/sdb1

  - 0 0 1 removed

  3 8 49 2 active sync /dev/sdd1

  1 8 33 - faulty /dev/sdc1

  [[email protected] md5]$ cat a.txt # 发现我们的数据还是能访问的。没有问题。

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  5.1.5 替换设备

  我这里是磁盘坏掉后的执行替换的, 完全可以多一个备用盘, 坏掉自动替换的。

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  [[email protected] md5]$ mdadm /dev/md5 -a /dev/sde1 # 上面我们的sdc1数据损坏,我们需要更换新的磁盘来顶替他的位置。这里添加一个sde1的磁盘, fdisk操作这里省去了。

  mdadm: added /dev/sde1

  [[email protected] md5]$ mdadm -Ds # 查看详细信息

  ARRAY /dev/md5 metadata=1.2 name=centos7.magedu.com:5 UUID=2c8ae60d:a799fcb7:9008a046:ae6ea430

  [[email protected] md5]$ mdadm -D /dev/md5 # 查看详细信息

  /dev/md5:

  Version : 1.2

  Creation Time : Wed Dec 6 19:28:22 2017

  Raid Level : raid5

  Array Size : 2095104 (2046.00 MiB 2145.39 MB)

  Used Dev Size : 1047552 (1023.00 MiB 1072.69 MB)

  Raid Devices : 3

  Total Devices : 4

  Persistence : Superblock is persistent

  Update Time : Wed Dec 6 19:50:01 2017

  State : clean # 状态恢复正常了。没有问题

  Active Devices : 3

  Working Devices : 3

  Failed Devices : 1

  Spare Devices : 0

  Layout : left-symmetric

  Chunk Size : 256K

  Consistency Policy : resync

  Name : centos7.magedu.com:5 (local to host centos7.magedu.com)

  UUID : 2c8ae60d:a799fcb7:9008a046:ae6ea430

  Events : 43

  Number Major Minor RaidDevice State

  0 8 17 0 active sync /dev/sdb1

  4 8 65 1 active sync /dev/sde1

  3 8 49 2 active sync /dev/sdd1

  1 8 33 - faulty /dev/sdc1 # 这个盘是坏掉的,我们已经加入了新的磁盘, 这个盘可以干掉了

  [[email protected] md5]$ man mdadm

  [[email protected] md5]$ mdadm /dev/md5 --remove /dev/sdc1 # 这个盘我们从raid5中移除去。

  mdadm: hot removed /dev/sdc1 from /dev/md5

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  5.1.6扩展raid

  我们上面使用的是2+1构成的raid5,磁盘利用率为66%,如果我们想改成3+1 可以执行类似如下命令

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mkadm -G -r /dev/md5 -n 4 -a /dev/sdxx # 这里我就不测试了。使用/dev/sdxx代替一个设备。-G 是Grown增长的意思,-r 是resizefs的意思,

  5.1.7 清空raid信息

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  [[email protected] mnt]$ umount /dev/md5 # 卸载设备

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mdadm -S /dev/md5 # 停止raid5

  mdadm: stopped /dev/md5

  [[email protected] mnt]$ sed -i '$d' /etc/fstab # 删除fstab中关于raid5挂载的行

  [[email protected] mnt]$ cat /etc/fstab # 确保fstab没有大问题

  #

  # /etc/fstab

  # Created by anaconda on Tue Nov 7 16:07:01 2017

  #

  # Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk'

  # See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info

  #

  UUID=59ccea87-3c4e-4bbc-9e2f-3fadb1dcf2e6 / ext4 defaults 1 1

  UUID=f4e867e8-bcde-43a2-adc7-c80b0948e85f /app ext4 noatime,usrquota,grpquota 1 2

  UUID=1d6cbe88-ffb4-4adf-bacf-76be1fa75708 /boot ext4 defaults 1 2

  #UUID=b2c064f5-1ee5-4b5c-9e75-ed41cb99c5aa swap swap defaults 0 0

  #UUID=a0516c4f-40e6-4919-905a-8b44db12ff7b swap swap defaults,pri=0 0 0

  #/dev/sdb2 /test ext4 rw,seclabel,relatime,data=ordered 0 0

  #/dev/sdb1 /home xfs rw,seclabel,relatime,attr2,inode64,usrquota,grpquota 0 0

  [[email protected] mnt]$ rm -rf /etc/mdadm.conf # 删除raid默认配置文件

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mdadm --zero-superblock /dev/sd{b1,e1,d1,c1} # 清空设置上的超级块信息

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  5.2 RAID10的实现

  raid10 ,6个分区,2个一组raid1,3组raid0

  5.2.1 案例分析

  分析下,我们创建一个raid10设置,2个设备组成一个raid1,6个设备2个一组可以组成3个raid1, 然后把3个raid1组成一个raid0即可

  5.2.2 先创建6个设备

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  [[email protected] mnt]$ lsblk # 就是使用fdisk 创建的设备, 具体这里就不写了。 最终使用lsblk显示,我们可以看到sdb1,sdb2,sdd1,sde1一共6个磁盘

  NAME MAJ:MIN RM SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT

  sda 8:0 0 200G 0 disk

  ├─sda1 8:1 0 1G 0 part /boot

  ├─sda2 8:2 0 128G 0 part

  ├─sda3 8:3 0 48.8G 0 part /

  ├─sda4 8:4 0 512B 0 part

  └─sda5 8:5 0 19.5G 0 part /app

  sdb 8:16 0 100G 0 disk

  ├─sdb1 8:17 0 1G 0 part

  └─sdb2 8:18 0 1G 0 part

  sdc 8:32 0 20G 0 disk

  ├─sdc1 8:33 0 1G 0 part

  └─sdc2 8:34 0 1G 0 part

  sdd 8:48 0 20G 0 disk

  └─sdd1 8:49 0 1G 0 part

  sde 8:64 0 20G 0 disk

  └─sde1 8:65 0 1G 0 part

  sdf 8:80 0 20G 0 disk

  sr0 11:0 1 8.1G 0 rom /run/media/root/CentOS 7 x86_64

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  5.2.3 创建raid

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  [[email protected] mnt]$ mdadm -C /dev/md11 -a yes -l 1 -n 2 /dev/sd{b1,c1} # 创建第一个raid1

  mdadm: /dev/sdb1 appears to be part of a raid array:

  level=raid5 devices=3 ctime=Wed Dec 6 19:28:22 2017

  mdadm: Note: this array has metadata at the start and

  may not be suitable as a boot device. If you plan to

  store '/boot' on this device please ensure that

  your boot-loader understands md/v1.x metadata, or use

  --metadata=0.90

  mdadm: /dev/sdc1 appears to be part of a raid array:

  level=raid5 devices=3 ctime=Wed Dec 6 19:28:22 2017

  Continue creating array? y

  mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata

  mdadm: array /dev/md11 started.

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mdadm -C /dev/md12 -a yes -l 1 -n 2 /dev/sd{b2,c2} #创建第二个raid1

  mdadm: Note: this array has metadata at the start and

  may not be suitable as a boot device. If you plan to

  store '/boot' on this device please ensure that

  your boot-loader understands md/v1.x metadata, or use

  --metadata=0.90

  Continue creating array? y

  mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata

  mdadm: array /dev/md12 started.

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mdadm -C /dev/md13 -a yes -l 1 -n 2 /dev/sd{d1,e1} # 创建第三个raid1

  mdadm: /dev/sdd1 appears to be part of a raid array:

  level=raid5 devices=3 ctime=Wed Dec 6 19:28:22 2017

  mdadm: Note: this array has metadata at the start and

  may not be suitable as a boot device. If you plan to

  store '/boot' on this device please ensure that

  your boot-loader understands md/v1.x metadata, or use

  --metadata=0.90

  mdadm: /dev/sde1 appears to be part of a raid array:

  level=raid5 devices=3 ctime=Wed Dec 6 19:28:22 2017

  Continue creating array? y

  mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata

  mdadm: array /dev/md13 started.

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mdadm -C /dev/md10 -a yes -l 0 -n 3 /dev/md{11,12,13} # 将3个raid1 合并为一个raid0

  mdadm: /dev/md11 appears to contain an ext2fs file system

  size=2095104K mtime=Wed Dec 6 19:29:45 2017

  mdadm: /dev/md13 appears to contain an ext2fs file system

  size=2095104K mtime=Wed Dec 6 19:29:45 2017

  Continue creating array? y

  mdadm: Defaulting to version 1.2 metadata

  mdadm: array /dev/md10 started.

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mkfs.ext

  mkfs.ext2 mkfs.ext3 mkfs.ext4

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mkfs.ext4 /dev/md10 # 创建文件系统

  mke2fs 1.42.9 (28-Dec-2013)

  Filesystem label=

  OS type: Linux

  Block size=4096 (log=2)

  Fragment size=4096 (log=2)

  Stride=128 blocks, Stripe width=384 blocks

  196224 inodes, 784896 blocks

  39244 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user

  First data block=0

  Maximum filesystem blocks=805306368

  24 block groups

  32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group

  8176 inodes per group

  Superblock backups stored on blocks:

  32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912

  Allocating group tables: done

  Writing inode tables: done

  Creating journal (16384 blocks): done

  Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mdadm -Ds # 查看配置信息

  ARRAY /dev/md11 metadata=1.2 name=centos7.magedu.com:11 UUID=0ce2cd6c:cd21fab6:3e65cfb5:64bd86f3

  ARRAY /dev/md12 metadata=1.2 name=centos7.magedu.com:12 UUID=8af31dff:efab06ed:48e2613b:a599c774

  ARRAY /dev/md13 metadata=1.2 name=centos7.magedu.com:13 UUID=a8c99d60:2d0c61e7:97a76809:9396c020

  ARRAY /dev/md10 metadata=1.2 name=centos7.magedu.com:10 UUID=50b2fa58:4ce65d67:8c50c853:fa175a28

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mdadm -Ds >> /etc/mdadm.conf # 写配置文件到mdadm的配置文件中

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mkdir /mnt/md10 # 创建挂载目录

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mount /dev/md10 /mnt/md10 # 挂载文件系统

  [[email protected] mnt]$ tail -n 1 /etc/mtab # 查看mtab文件中的最后一行, 也就是我们的md10挂载信息

  /dev/md10 /mnt/md10 ext4 rw,seclabel,relatime,stripe=384,data=ordered 0 0

  [[email protected] mnt]$ tail -n 1 /etc/mtab >> /etc/fstab #添加到开机启动

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  5.2.4 raid 清除工作

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  [[email protected] mnt]$ umount /dev/md10 # 取消挂载

  [[email protected] mnt]$ rm -rf /etc/mdadm.conf # 删除mdadm的默认配置

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mdadm -S /dev/md10 # 停止raid0设置

  mdadm: stopped /dev/md10

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mdadm -S /dev/md11 # 停止raid1设置

  mdadm: stopped /dev/md11

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mdadm -S /dev/md12 # 停止radi1 设置

  mdadm: stopped /dev/md12

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mdadm -S /dev/md13 # 停止raid 1 设置

  mdadm: stopped /dev/md13

  [[email protected] mnt]$ sed -i '$d' /etc/fstab # 删除fstab的挂载

  [[email protected] mnt]$ cat /etc/fstab # 确保正确

  #

  # /etc/fstab

  # Created by anaconda on Tue Nov 7 16:07:01 2017

  #

  # Accessible filesystems, by reference, are maintained under '/dev/disk'

  # See man pages fstab(5), findfs(8), mount(8) and/or blkid(8) for more info

  #

  UUID=59ccea87-3c4e-4bbc-9e2f-3fadb1dcf2e6 / ext4 defaults 1 1

  UUID=f4e867e8-bcde-43a2-adc7-c80b0948e85f /app ext4 noatime,usrquota,grpquota 1 2

  UUID=1d6cbe88-ffb4-4adf-bacf-76be1fa75708 /boot ext4 defaults 1 2

  #UUID=b2c064f5-1ee5-4b5c-9e75-ed41cb99c5aa swap swap defaults 0 0

  #UUID=a0516c4f-40e6-4919-905a-8b44db12ff7b swap swap defaults,pri=0 0 0

  #/dev/sdb2 /test ext4 rw,seclabel,relatime,data=ordered 0 0

  #/dev/sdb1 /home xfs rw,seclabel,relatime,attr2,inode64,usrquota,grpquota 0 0

  [[email protected] mnt]$ mdadm -D # 再次查看下mdadm信息,确保没有了

  mdadm: No devices given.[[email protected] mnt]$ mdadm --zero-superblock /dev/sd{b1,b2,c1,c2,d1,e1} # 请求md的元数据信息

 

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